Osteoporosis is the most prevalent bone disease affecting millions of people globally. Approximately 12% of men and 30% of women in developed countries experience osteoporosis-related fractures. This disease is characterized by decreased bone density causing microarchitectural deterioration of bones, commonly the spine, hip, and forearm. Bone fracture is usually the first symptom of osteoporosis. Acute back pain, kyphosis, and gradual loss of height may occur if the spine is affected.
Bone density tends to diminish with age, especially in postmenopausal women. 50% of the people with osteoporosis have a family history of the disease, indicating the involvement of genetic factors. Corticosteroid therapy is also a common culprit behind osteoporosis. People with osteoporosis must stop smoking immediately, reduce alcohol intake, and incorporate calcium-rich foods or supplements into their diet. Drugs such as bisphosphonates can also reduce the risk of fractures by reducing bone resorption.